Asthma / Bronchial Asthma =====
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.
Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.Its diagnosis is usually based on spirometry.

Treatment of acute symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (such as salbutamol) and oral corticosteroids. In very severe cases, intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and hospitalization may be required. Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by the use of inhaled corticosteroids Long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or leukotriene antagonists may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled.

The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. In 2011, 235–300 million people globally have been diagnosed with asthma. ]and it caused 250,000 deaths, Globaly Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Sputum may be produced from the lung by coughing but is often hard to bring up.

Medical conditions
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  • A triad of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma is called atopy. The strongest risk factor for developing asthma is a history of atopic disease with asthma occurring at a much greater rate in those who have either eczema or hay fever.

    There is a correlation between obesity and the risk of asthma with both having increased in recent years.

    Beta blocker medications such as propranolol can trigger asthma in those who are susceptible. Cardioselective beta-blockers, however, appear safe in those with mild or moderate disease.Other medications that can cause problems are ASA, NSAIDs, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  • Exacerbation, asthma, asthma attacks, shortness breath, Asthma Specialist
  • Some individuals will have stable asthma for weeks or months and then suddenly develop an episode of acute asthma.
    Different individuals react differently to various factors. Most individuals can develop severe exacerbation from a number of triggering agent.
    Home factors that can lead to exacerbation of asthma include dust, animal dander (especially cat and dog hair), cockroach allergens and mold. Perfumes are a common cause of acute attacks in women and children. Both viral and bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract can worsen the disease. Psychological stress may worsen symptoms—it is thought that stress alters the immune system and thus increases the airway inflammatory response to allergens and irritants.

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  • Spirometry is then used to confirm the diagnosis. In children under the age of six the diagnosis is more difficult as they are too young for spirometry.
    An acute asthma exacerbation is commonly referred to as an asthma attack. The classic symptoms are shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness , and in severe cases, air motion may be significantly impaired such that no wheezing is heard.[76] Signs which occur during an asthma attack include the use of accessory muscles of respiration, there may be a paradoxical pulse (a pulse that is weaker during inhalation and stronger during exhalation), and over-inflation of the color of the skin and nails may occur from lack of oxygen
    Acute severe asthma, previously known as status asthmaticus, is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments of bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Half of cases are due to infections with others caused by allergen, air pollution, or insufficient or inappropriate medication use.
    Brittle asthma is a kind of asthma distinguishable by recurrent, severe attacks. Type 1 brittle asthma is a disease with wide peak flow variability, despite intense medication. Type 2 brittle asthma is background well-controlled asthma with sudden severe exacerbations.

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  • While there is no cure for asthma, symptoms can typically be improved.
    The most effective treatment for asthma is identifying triggers, such as cigarette smoke, pets, or aspirin, and eliminating exposure to them.
    If trigger avoidance is insufficient, the use of medication is recommended.
    Pharmaceutical drugs are selected based on, among other things, the severity of illness and the frequency of symptoms. Specific medications for asthma are broadly classified into fast-acting and long-acting categories.
    Bronchodilators low-dose inhaled corticosteroids,an oral leukotriene antagonist or a mast cell stabilizeris recommended.

Lifestyle modification
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  • Avoidance of triggers is a key component of improving control and preventing attacks. The most common triggers include allergens, smoke (tobacco and other), air pollution, non selective beta-blockers, and sulfite-containing foods.

    Dust mite control measures, including air filtration, chemicals to kill mites, mattress covers and others methods.

  • responsible for Asthma - House Dust Mite
Grass Pollens 
Weed Pollens
Tree Pollens
Pet Animals
  • List of Allergens which is responsible for Rhinitis & Asthma:

    • House Dust Mite
    • Grass Pollens
    • Weed Pollens
    • Tree Pollens
    • Molds
    • Insects
    • Pet Animals
    • Foods
    • Medicines

Testing by allergy test either by Skin Prick Method or Blood Allergy Test gives exact allergen / trigger.
Avoiding or Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (ASIT) is best available option where symptoms and medication use get decreased to substantial lavel. Few cases has been seen where there is no use of Asthma medication In last 25 yrs!!!
ASIT if works , it is a bliss.

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